There are various reasons why a turbocharger fails. A turbo failure is a rare occurrence as
the problems usually stem from of external problems. There are mainly five reasons for
1. Foreign Object Impact
2. Oil Contamination
3. Oil Starvation
4. Over speeding
5. Extreme Temperature
Foreign Object Impact
Foreign object damage is caused by foreign materials entering the turbine/compressor housing and impacting the turbine or compressor wheel. This leads to a lost of efficiency and unbalance rotation, ultimately resulting in turbo failure. Turbochargers can spin at over 6,000 revs per second (360,000 rpm) and endure temperatures of 950°C. In these conditions, even the smallest object ingested or sucked into the turbo can damage or destroy the compressor and turbine, leading to low pressure or total failure. Compressor damage is caused by objects being sucked into the air intake. Turbine damage is usually caused by engine components, such as injector tips or valve train parts.
Items sucked into the air intake because of a damaged, poor quality or missing air filter.
Damaged hoses allowing small particles to enter the intake.
Gasket material entering the intake.
Nuts, bolts, washers, rags or other items left in the intake pipe during servicing.
Broken engine components, e.g. injector tips, valves or fragments of damaged piston.
Fragments from a previous turbocharger failure.
Ensure all air hoses are in good condition, intact and free from blockages or loose items.
Always use new gaskets to create perfect seals and avoid gasket breakup.
Always fit the correct new air filter.
Check there are no turbo or engine fragments in the system from the previous failure,before fitting the replacement.